ACI (Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation)

A regenerative therapy used to repair damages in articular cartilage by implanting cultured cells from the patient’s own cartilage.


A type of injection used to treat knee osteoarthritis, utilizing a polyacrylamide hydrogel to provide a scaffold protection for the synovium to the joint.


Referring to arthroscopy, Key hole, a minimally invasive surgical procedure on a joint in which an examination and sometimes treatment of damage is performed using an arthroscope.


A minimally invasive surgical procedure on a joint in which an examination and sometimes treatment of damage is performed using an arthroscope, an endoscopic device, key hole surgery.

Artificial Meniscus

A synthetic implant used to replace a damaged meniscus in the knee.


Ball Joint

A type of joint that allows multi-directional movement and rotation, similar to the hip and shoulder joints.

BMAC (Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate)

A concentrated form of bone marrow that is rich in stem cells, used in regenerative medicine to help repair damaged tissues.



A smooth, rubbery tissue that covers the ends of bones at joints, allowing bones to glide over one another with minimal friction.

Chondromalacia Patella

A condition where the cartilage on the under surface of the patella (kneecap) deteriorates and softens.

Cingal Injection

A combination of hyaluronic acid and steroid used for the treatment of osteoarthritis knee pain.


The main structural protein found in skin and other connective tissues, widely used in purified form for cartilage surgical treatments as well as in regenerative medicine.


Dislocated Kneecap

A condition where the patella moves out of its normal position, often caused by a sudden change in direction when the leg is planted on the ground.

Durolane Injection

A single-injection treatment containing hyaluronic acid to relieve knee pain caused by osteoarthritis.



Femoral Osteotomy

A surgical procedure that cuts and realigns the femur bone to correct alignment problems and redistribute weight on the knee joint.



Hamstring Regeneration:

A process or treatment aimed at repairing and regrowing injured hamstring muscles and tendons.

High Tibial Osteotomy

A surgical procedure that cuts and reshapes the tibia to relieve pressure on the knee joint.

Hip Cartilage

The cartilage that covers the ball-and-socket joint of the hip, providing cushioning and allowing for smooth movement.

Hyaluronic Acid Injection

A treatment for osteoarthritis where hyaluronic acid is injected into the knee joint to provide lubrication and cushioning.



intra-articular polyacrylamide hydrogel injection used for the symptomatic treatment of knee osteoarthritis. Once injected into the knee joint, it work on the synovium to act as a spacer.



Knee Arthritis

Inflammation of the knee joint often due to wear and tear (osteoarthritis) or autoimmune conditions (rheumatoid arthritis).

Knee Cap Cartilage

The cartilage that covers the back of the patella and articulates with the femur.

Knee Cap Dislocation

The displacement of the patella from its normal position in the femoral groove.

Knee Cartilage:

The cartilage within the knee joint that provides a cushion between the bones and allows smooth movement.

Knee Joint Replacement

A surgical procedure where a damaged knee joint is replaced with artificial metal and plastic components.

Knee Liquid Cartilage

A colloquial term for injectable treatments used to mimic the properties of synovial fluid in the knee joint.

Knee Meniscus

A C-shaped piece of tough, rubbery cartilage that acts as a shock absorber between your shinbone and thighbone.

Knee Microfracture Surgery

A procedure to treat areas of damaged cartilage by creating small fractures in the underlying bone, hoping to stimulate the production of new cartilage, a very old technique with unreliable results.

Knee Osteotomy

A surgical procedure where the bones of the knee joint are cut and realigned to shift weight from the damaged part of the knee.

Knee Pain:

Discomfort in the knee area that can be caused by a variety of conditions or injuries.


Lateral Meniscus

The meniscus located on the outer side of the knee, which helps to distribute weight and provide stability to the joint.

Lipogem Injection

A regenerative treatment using processed adipose (fat) tissue to promote healing in damaged or diseased tissues.

Liquid Cartilage:

A term sometimes used to describe injections that aim to mimic the function of natural cartilage in joints.


MACI (Matrix-induced Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation)

An advanced form of ACI that uses a biodegradable matrix to deliver cultured chondrocytes to the area of cartilage damage.

Medial Meniscectomy

Surgical removal of all or part of the medial meniscus, usually due to a tear.


A curved fibrocartilage structure in the knee that acts as a shock absorber between the femur and tibia.

MFAT Injection (Microfragmented Adipose Tissue)

A treatment where processed fat tissue is injected to promote healing and reduce inflammation in damaged tissues.


A surgical procedure to treat cartilage damage by creating tiny fractures in the bone, a very old school procedure that does not make logical sense, can lead to very bad outcome.

Monovisc Injection

A single-injection treatment using hyaluronic acid to relieve pain in osteoarthritis of the knee joint.

MPFL (Medial Patellofemoral Ligament)

A ligament that stabilizes the patella and helps to prevent dislocation. It helps to stabilize the patella and allows it to track properly during knee movement.


nStride Injection

An autologous protein solution injection derived from the patient’s own blood, aimed at treating knee osteoarthritis by reducing inflammation and pain.

Ostenil Injection

An injection of hyaluronic acid for the treatment of symptoms of osteoarthritis in joints.


A surgical procedure that involves cutting and reshaping bones to correct alignment and relieve pressure on a joint.



Partial Dislocation of Knee Cap

A condition where the knee cap partially comes out of its normal alignment, most of the time it spontaneously goes back into place.

Partial Meniscectomy:

A surgical procedure where only the damaged part of the meniscus is removed. It increases the pressure to the cartilage and can lead arthritis long term.

Patella MPFL

Refers to the surgical reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament to correct patellar instability.

Patella Alta

A condition where the patella sits too high in relation to the femur, which can lead to instability and dislocation.

Patella Arthritis

Degeneration of the cartilage surface of the patella, leading to pain and functional impairment.

Patella Cartilage

The layer of cartilage on the underside of the patella that facilitates smooth movement against the femur.

Patella Dislocation

The movement of the patella out of its normal position in the trochlear groove of the femur, often accompanied by pain and swelling.

Platelet Rich Plasma Injection (PRP)

A treatment that uses a concentration of a patient’s own platelets to accelerate the healing of injured tendons, ligaments, muscles, and joints.

PRF Injection (Platelet-Rich Fibrin)

Similar to PRP, it’s an advanced form of platelet-rich plasma that also includes fibrin, white blood cells, and stem cells to promote healing.

PRP Injection

See Platelet Rich Plasma Injection.

Reconstruction ACL (Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction)

A surgical procedure to replace a torn anterior cruciate ligament in the knee with a graft.

Repair Meniscus

Surgical procedures aimed at fixing tears in the meniscus to restore knee stability and function.

Replacement Cartilage

Procedures or treatments that aim to replace or repair damaged cartilage in joints.

Scaffold Knee Cartilage

A technique that involves implanting a scaffold material, which supports the growth of new cartilage cells, into the knee joint.

Silicone Cartilage

Refers to experimental treatments or research in using silicone materials to mimic the properties of cartilage.




Stem Cell

Cells that have the potential to develop into different types of cells in the body and are used in regenerative medicine to repair damaged tissues.

Synvisc Injection

An injection of a gel-like substance, similar to hyaluronic acid, used to treat knee osteoarthritis by providing cushioning and lubrication to the joint.

STACI (Single-stage Autologous Cartilage Implantation)

A technique where cartilage repair is performed in a single surgical procedure without the need for a separate harvesting operation.

STARR (Soft Tissue Augmented Regenerative Repair)

A revolutionary orthopaedic technique for ligament repair and reconstruction. It utilizes a holistic approach that includes principles from physics, chemistry, biology, and optimal timing. By reinforcing the native ligament with a biocompatible scaffold, the STARR technique promotes biomechanical stability, optimal chemical environment for healing, natural tissue regeneration, and takes advantage of the body’s peak healing response post-injury to minimize scar tissue and regenerate functional tissue​.


A thin layer of tissue that lines the spaces of the joint. The synovium, or synovial membrane, is responsible for producing synovial fluid, which is essential for lubricating the joint, providing nutrients to the cartilage, and aiding in shock absorption. It plays a crucial role in joint health and functionality, and its inflammation is a characteristic feature of various arthritic conditions.


Tibial Osteotomy

A surgical procedure similar to high tibial osteotomy, aimed at realigning the knee joint to relieve arthritis pain.

Torn Cartilage

Refers to a tear in the cartilage, particularly within the knee, which can cause pain and disability








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